Category Archives: Part 5

5.3 A Finer Focus

Much of my work in this course has been verging on the abstract expressionist, and responding to the properties of my materials.  I have decided to challenge my observation and patience with a realistic detailed drawing of knitting. I had been considering a self-portrait after the manner of Chuck Close, but I decided to represent myself through a process and object.

Knitting is, surprisingly, intrinsic to my life at present. I knitted when I was young but it slipped away from me when I had young children. In the last few years, though, I have returned to knitting whilst sitting with my Mother-in-Law. I spend quite a lot of time with her and we speak on the phone every day, and, frankly, I run out of things to say. However, I have found that we can sit in companionable silence provided we have a bit of hand-work. (I have tried drawing but it seems unacceptable in a hospital or nursing home; an invasion of privacy, and Mum doesn’t want me to draw her ‘looking old’.)

Knitting is a wonderful technology, allowing for almost infinite 3d shaping. In Sculpture 1, I knitted several sculptures with heavy cord and really enjoyed the process and the giant results. Rather than draw my current knitting, I have chosen to draw a bas-relief that I made of knitting using plaster. This means that I can hang it on the wall with strong directional lighting. Also, since the drawing is likely to take considerable time, the position of the knitting cannot be disrupted by being accidentally moved.

This knitting was done on a very large needle using nylon cord and then pressed into clay before casting with plaster of paris.

I started a study in my sketchbook, but found that I was concentrating on the minute details before establishing the overall design. This meant that one section of drawing was not joining up with the next. I then concentrated on establishing the rhythm of the loops and the way the knitting worked as a whole, so that detail could be subsequently added.

I have found these fine pencil drawings difficult to photograph without distorting tone.

I did look at drawing a normal, smaller, more uniform piece of knitting, but the bas-relief knitting has the visual advantage that the nylon cord produces strong loops and, in places, twists. The plied structure of the cord is clearly visible and I want to capture both the large scale design and the small scale detail.

In my sketchbook, I had started with a very finely sharpened HB pencil, but found even that made too imprecise marks. The final drawing was made with a 2H sharpened on sand paper. This has resulted in a limited range of paler tones, almost like silverpoint.

Arthritis in my hand makes drawing with precision challenging, and time-consuming with many breaks. I decided to work in phases across the drawing, using a loose grip at the end of the pencil for initial placement, a stronger grip for refining the curves and then a normal pencil grip for detail. I rotated between these to give my hand a rest, which meant that one part of the drawing was being fully resolved whilst another was still being laid in.

Working over a length of time allowed me to return to the drawing after a break and view it more objectively. I have decided that I like the drawing with these phases apparent and don’t want to actually resolve the whole drawing. I think that it is more interesting showing the process of making rather than having a polished, and frankly more boring, ‘finished’ image.

Initial laying out, connecting shapes

Refining loops, working out ‘overs’ and ‘unders’

Tidying up with an electric eraser before adding detail and shading

Fully resolved area, top right

Final drawing, A2, graphite on cartridge paper


Whilst I appreciate the value of careful, observational drawing, this style of realistic drawing does not give me satisfaction and I find the end result bland. Even though this drawing makes no pretence of being to the minute standard of photo-realism, this level of detail requires the suppression of the characterful mark and of the character of the media used; the artist and the mark should be effacing. I am a gestural drawer, so find this very difficult, even distasteful. I have subverted the realism by showing how the drawing is constructed which I feel makes it much more interesting.


More Notes on UCA Online Library

Notes to self:

I continue to explore the UCA online library with reference to my critical review. I have identified several ebooks to read. Most of these are at ProQuest Ebook Central which has the option to create a ‘bookshelf’ of personally relevant books. This is very useful if you see an interesting book and want to note it for future reference. I am, however, having a problem getting to my bookshelf directly. Currently I get to Ebook Central by searching for a book that is on the bookshelf!

Once I have got to my bookshelf (at the right on a top bar), I can view my list of books, click on one and it will open. I have the contents on the left and a tool bar above which includes a download option. On my ipad, I can select download and a pdf will download for a requested length of time (I have been choosing 7 days). At the first download, I had to install an Adobe reader Bluefire, registering with Adobe, but this was straight forward. Yet another login and password to remember. This allows text highlighting and note taking which may be useful.

The Ebook Central toolbar also includes options to get citation (not great), highlight text and add notes. Currently, I am finding it more effective to copy the ISBN into EasyBib and let it generate the in-line citation and reference.


5.3 A Finer Focus – Research

The objective of this project is to produce a drawing which requires focused effort and attention to detail. The subject should have ‘a substantial number of detailed parts’.

Attention to detail and accumulation of detail are two different approaches to this project. The first requires minute observational skills and the draughtsmanship to convert he observation in to a detailed representational drawing. The ultimate example of this is hyper-realism. Why you would want to made a drawing look like a photograph? One reason might be that you are drawing something which could not be photographed, say a fantastical beast. Alternatively, it may be a mere demonstration of technical skill. I feel that, for this approach to be valid, the drawing has to say more than a photograph would, and given that many hyper-realistic drawings use a photograph as a reference, it is not always obvious what that might be.

A couple of years ago, I was lucky to see Peter Blake’s illustrations to Dylan Thomas’s ‘Under Milk Wood’. Blake has had a life long fascination with the poem and has created, over many years, illustrations using collage, painting and drawing. In the context of this project, his painstaking drawings of the characters come to mind. These delicate drawings done with 2H pencil look like old photographs and are either from imagination or based on friends. He shows examples of the drawings and talks about them here. The drawings are not photo-realistic; they are of a small intimate size. Most hyper-realistic drawings which I have seen in the flesh, have been very large so that imperfections of drawing are smoothed through scale.

I have seen work by Eric Manigaud in which he reproduces photographs of Jewish victims of Nazi mental asylums. These images are important and cast a long shadow, but what does he bring to them by translating them on a large scale with pencil and graphite powder? It seems to me that the final reproduced image is less important than the respect that he has given it through extended labour.

Vija Celmins makes works which are apparently photographic but are rather drawings of the photograph as physical artifact, rather than its subject. Her work, ‘Bikini’ 1968, selects and presents a torn image which has already been selected and extracted from a magazine.  Straine (Straine, 2010) points out Celmins’ affinity to, and admiration for, Georgio Morani, and describes her practice, like his, as ‘prolonged and intensive study’. Her work ‘Ocean’,1975 typifies this approach. This is less about photographic representation than minute observation and understanding. She talks about her work here, and I get a great understanding of it when she says that these works suck you in and then push you back out. You lean in to absorb the detail, then stand back to appreciate the wider image. Her drawings are not only very detailed but the detail is undifferentiated. They rarely have a focal point or depth. 

Artists like Chuck Close and Ron Muerk produce intense, forensic investigations of the human form. It is as if, by examining every pore and hair, they might identify some inner truth. The truth revealed by Ron Muerk is perhaps more about ourselves and our reactions to the realities of human flesh, Close’s is more akin to traditional portraiture, seeking a deeper knowledge of the sitter.

A second approach to the project is through the piling up of small drawn details to create a narrative, rather than a realistic interpretation. Stephen Walker’s maps are a personal representation of place, detailing visual, historical or personally significant landmarks. His map of London is different to my map of London because our experiences of London are different. Grayson Perry’s maps are even more personal, representing life’s challenges, disasters and triumphs. The Art Fund describes Perry’s ‘Map of Days’ 2012-2013, as a self-portrait (Art Fund,

Looking at these sort of maps, I found a delightful example by Patricia Marx, an illustrator of the New Yorker, mapping her lost gloves, and other possessions. Her map is not only a record of place, but timeline and personal testament.

These map drawings remind me of the sort I made as a child, and with my children, when they were young, of imagined countries and adventures, with layers of meaning in the made-up town and country names.


Art Fund, 2014. ‘Grayson Perry interview: Map of Days’, Art Fund ,accessed 18 September 2017

Straine S, ‘Dust and Doubt: The Deserts and Galaxies of Vija Celmins’, Tate Papers, no.14, Autumn 2010,, accessed 18 September 2017.

5.2 Artist’s Book – Motion

This project calls for the creation of an artist’s book about something which elapses over time. I have chosen to use the project to continue to create a body of work about travelling up and down the M40. My objective is to create something which is, of itself, a pleasing artefact but which also conveys a mood and story of repeated, relentless travel.

As a background to this, I have considered how, or indeed whether, other artists have portrayed motorways or road travel. I guess most don’t find it an attractive subject because I haven’t been able to identify many works. The printmaker, Gail Brodholt, uses transport as her subject, principally the Underground, but she also draws some roads. She writes and interesting and informative blog, and I remember reading with interest her detail account of making a print of the A102, breaking out the layers, making colour decisions etc. I now understand her choice of very wide landscape support fr the subject. However, her prints convey a rather nostalgic view of travel but don’t express the actual movement.

Ed Ruscha gets closer to the feeling of grey relentlessness of travel with his monochome photographs of fuel stations, compiled into a book, ’26 Gasoline Stations’ (1963). Whilst no movement is suggested in the photographs, it is implied by the act of piling up the images.

A fellow student has brought the woodcuts of Christiane Baumgartner to my attention. I assume that she uses photographic references which she transfers to woodcuts with subtle cutting for tone control. The limited monochrome tones combined with the woodcut technique give these prints a dreamy lack of detail and hard edges but also a rather gritty reality. Her other prints which use the sweep of a road, lack that slight remove from reality.

The first step towards my book was to take numerous photographs pf the motorway and analysis the curves. This was a different approach to drawing instinctively whilst travelling. The book would have to be made remotely and I wanted the curves to be founded in fact rather that making them up from memory or my previous drawings. The curves were analysed in paper after page in my sketchbook.

Kilometre markers often appeared in my shots, and I recorded these as I considered including them in the book, perhaps in an index?

Following on from my earlier book work, I wanted to explore ways of piling up the curves. The first approach I tried was to cut some curves into cartridge paper and then experiment with binding each page into a book.

With each curve cut out, the shapes of the curves pile up, creating new intersects as the pages are turned. However, each individual curve is rather disguised.

The pieces removed were interesting shapes and I considered if these could also be employed. However, the very delicate points barely survived my manipulations. This also exposes any slight defect in the cut of the curves.

The  white paper, whilst simple and strong, is perhaps a bit dull. I thought about combining the windows or cut out shapes with another paper which implied movement by using captured motion of media in water, either gouache, or ink marbling.

I think that the curves cut from ink marbled paper works best. The monochrome references the grey tarmac but there is a suggestion of movement. The marbling is large enough and subtle enough to not be pretty, indeed barely look like marbling at all.

Another alternative is to use actual images of the motorway, but, like the marbling, in such a way that the original image is almost lost. This was when I started cutting up my earlier work using combined photographs as a support.

These shapes, with drawn additions and in-obvious digital details are much more interesting as well as being better founded in the reality of my movement on the motorway.

I also considered various book forms, concertina, sewn binding, different shaped pages or pages joined at different points. I liked the idea of hexagonal pages, joined at faces so that they unfolded into a pathway. However, this won’t work with my curves and is perhaps a bit too reminiscent of a board game or Tantrix. I fixed upon a concertina book in landscape form because it references the strip maps produced in the 17th century.

Next, I experimented with papers for the substance of the book and selected a coloured pastel paper with substance and presence. New combined photographs were printed on wash and mounted on white paper before cutting. This gives the colours a liveliness, rather like a glaze in painting as the light is actually reflect off the white paper through the tissue.

A3 sheets of paper were cut and assembled into a 16 page landscape concertina book with the hinges at the bottom of the page so that the journey unfolds in the appropriate direction of travel.

The book needs to be presented to the user in the right orientation and also protected, so I have designed a slip case with a ribbon to put the book out. Rather than buy commercial ribbon, I wanted to make my own based on the subject. I have chosen to use an arrow from road makings (also shows where to pull!) and made this up in some waste cloth and interfacing. I can hide the other end inside the slip case but also considered a decorative end referencing a motorway sign.

The coloured tab is an off-cut of ‘road’ attached to fabric with acrylic medium and stitched. The scale is perhaps a bit big visually, but the size is practical both to sew and to use.

I like the ‘paper-fabric’. The digital image has now almost entirely disappeared and the material is easy to sew. I could make a slip case of this material, over-locking the edges and then sewing the faces together by hand. It would have substance but not be rigid. The edges are over-sewn for strength and to allow the pieces to be connected by stitching without the stitches ripping out.

Outside of slip case , machine sew as far as possible, ready for handsewing


The slip case was completed with hand sewing, disguised as much as possible in the over-sewn edges. The fabric has the handle of thin leather.


I have decided not to add a ‘road sign’ to the pull ribbon as the case is now visually complex. The arrow has been simply stitched to the underside, but, since the stitching will show, I have chosen to allow the tape to show too.

A cover was added to the book to give context and to signpost the right way up to open the book and the outside pages glued together to give strength and rigidity.

The completed book, 16cm x 10cm x 2cm, 14 pages:


This work brings together my ongoing dialogue with a motorway and my experiments with artists’ books and is a culmination of a body of work. As you turn the pages, you see the changing profile of the road as if travelling along the motorway. The shapes have been chosen based on the real experience but also for their visual variety and use combined digital images of the motorway altered by bleach, crayon and pen. The internal pages of the book are complex in their layers of creation over time but visually simple.

The slip case continues this idea, using the altered images from the motorway. However, whilst I enjoy the completeness of that idea, the execution as not crisp and professional as the earlier slip case which I made from card. It doesn’t sit well with the crispness of the pages of the book. Small threads and edges of paper are exposed and look slightly scruffy. The hand sewing is very poor due to arthritis. As you pull the ribbon, the book does not slide out smoothly as it would have in card.

I regret the decision to glue the two outer pages of the book down. I think that adding card covers would have given the book more presence. These could have been finished with more altered images. Giving the book, in its case to other people, they extract the book so that it is presented portrait in their hand and then open it to the blank side. To avoid this I should have made the slip case with the opening on a short side, although this makes extracting and replacing the book harder. I hoped adding text to the cover would aid orientation but it did not work, and I would have preferred to have no text and be less explicit.

I wanted to make something which was different and a development of my earlier books, but the simple, crisp card covers and slip case would have worked better.


5.2 A Diversion on the Motorway

I am very much enjoying artists’ books. They appeal to me because they can be so varied in concept and execution. They fulfil my ambition of making work which pushes out of rectangular, wall-hang art. I am working on an artist’s book based on motorway journeys, but fancied a diversion.

Taking some of the ideas from the miniature book making workshop and my first parallel project concertina book, I have been playing. Firstly, I made some marbled washi paper using black acrylic ink. I have some multicoloured marbling inks which are very effective but also rather pretty. I want to make something more in the Japanese tradition of Suminagashi which I believe uses sumi ink. By very carefully floating tiny amounts of ink on water using a cocktail stick, I was able to produce something towards the effect I wanted. Marbling is a variation of printing, I guess, as it is taking an impression off a surface.

I thought that the triangular books I had made on the workshop were particularly sculptural as they can be turned and twisted in different directions.

Workshop books using origami paper

I folded a long piece of marbled washi in triangles and cut two small pieces of gouached card to fit the ends.

Triangular pieces fall into interesting shapes in every attitude.

This is tiny, about 4cm long on its longest edge but it it really delivers as a sculptural piece. The understated marbled shapes work well and, because it is monochrome, the card compliments it.

I thought it would be interesting to explore the concertina book form in a more sculptural way by folding it in non-obvious ways. The washi paper is great for this, making fine creases which take up no space, whilst being surprisingly strong. Since it is translucent, the marbling shows through on both sides.

I love the way this is so variable but folds into a small rectangular book form (11cm x 5.5cm); a hidden treasure.

These little books using a simple strip of marbled washi and small pieces of gouache boards are small, elegant pleasures. They punch way above their weight of making. I love it when having studied drawing, printing and sculpture, it all comes together.


5.1 Continuous Motion

I am currently travelling up and down the M40 every second or third day. Drawing the journey has proved to be very therapeutic, converting tedium into creative process. Following on from the drawings in my sketchbook using coloured pencil, I swathed my seat in dust sheet and, using the biggest board and cartridge paper I could fit in, have sat and drawn the sweep of the motorway whilst travelling (not driving!). As the lines accumulated, I have occasionally swept my hand or finger through them to soften/lighten them so that I could continue drawing over.

charcoal, 31cm x 51cm

I repeated this on the return journey. Different but similar. I allowed the marks to build up for longer, producing greater density, but, when the lines had produced solid area of charcoal, using my nail to carve back into it. Both drawings are an honest response to perceived contours. It is interesting that the point at which left turns and right turns intersect is he same in both drawings. I am not sure if this is a response to being sat in the near side passenger seat or a left/right handed bias. Whichever, I am glad that they are not symmetrical.

Charcoal, 31cm x 51cm

It occurs to me that drawing the motorway is very like drawing to music. I am trying to respond to the rhythm and curves of the road, but, if you look at a photo, my mind has exaggerated the vertical axis. The M40 climbs, swoops and falls. A wide angle lens flattens this out, in contrast to the brain, which amplifies it. I am trying to be accurately involved with the movement through the journey but realise that the observation of the moment in time is modified by perception. I have become a sort of drawing machine at one remove, capturing not reality but some second order response to reality.

I am continuing to explore this. During my next journey, I decided to use coloured pencil again and accumulate marks for a longer time, continuing to draw after charcoal would have become a solid mass. I chose a limited palette based on the end of summer landscape colours and rotated the pencils in my hand. The charcoal has a physical presence on the page which corresponds to the physical presence of a motorway in the landscape. Coloured pencil just can’t compete.

The next journey to Birmingham was grey and rainy so I drew using grey brush Tombow felt tips and a waterbrush. Since I knew the day would be dark, I included red oil pastel and a silver paint marker in my pencil case for headlights and rear lights.

I had abandoned including the sky but today the clouds were so low and threatening that they crept back in.

A3, felt tip, oil pastel, paint marker on HP paper

Too much water came from the water brush going over bumps and I am not sure about the red marks, so my next drawing is just grey (and silver).

A3, felt tip, paint marker on HP paper

Some of the marks are ugly with wobbles in them but this is inevitable when drawing on a bumpy road or when the driver brakes. I prefer the clouds from the previous drawing and the road sweeps from the second.

With an associated artist’s book in mind, I have also been photographing the motorway. Rather than use plain paper as a support for a drawing, I thought about using a photograph, and then progressed to the idea of using a composite photograph. Here I have layered up about 20 photographs using a photo editor.

The image was transferred to my pad and I attempted to draw over it using a digital drawing app (Paper 53).

This did not create the feeling of onward rush that I wanted. This drawing looks like marks made on a sheet of glass over an image, not embedded in it. Next, the image was printed on three different supports, ordinary printer/copier paper, cartridge paper and washi (using a support sheet). I experimented drawing with a variety of media on the copy paper; soft pastel, gel pen, oil pastel, coloured pencil.

It occurred to me that what I really wanted to achieve was a form of obliteration, altering the image rather than just drawing over it. The ink is water based, so I tried drawing with water over the heavier cartridge paper.

The cartridge paper has absorbed the ink in tiny dots,  softening and pixelating it slightly. Only a heavy application of water had any effect. Rather than water, I tried bleach on the remaining washi version. The washi has received the ink to create a detailed, almost luminous, image and the bleach has a much more satisfactory effect than water, not only altering the ink but also the texture of the paper. I tried adding the other media.

A4, digital inkjet print on washi, bleach, oil pastel, gel pen, paint marker, coloured pencil.

This is much more the feel I wanted: the motorway dissolving in movement, rain, headlights, a blur of fleeting information. The washi captures the ink in a way that is reminiscent of the C41 silver-based photographic process which produces a cyan bias. The addition of bleach, which affects some pigments more than others, accentuates this.

I reprinted the photo across two A4 sheets and mounted it on A3 cartridge paper.

The brush used for the bleach has released it in drops and created a burn-out effect. I have added silver paint marker which I feel lies too heaviliy on the surface of the washi. I used bleach to paint in a sky, but find this really clumsy. I reprinted the photo and tried again, attempting to be more restrained and selective in my marks.

A3, digital print on washi, mounted on cartridge, oil pastel, gel pen, coloured pencil.

The bleach has still created some burn-out effects, like after images on the retina, but they are now not concentrated in one area. I have used the bleach to restate some of the features in the image, such as the arch of the bridge, the scaffolding on the upper right sign. The effect of the inkjet ink on translucent washi creates a dream-like feel. This is reinforced by the faint, piled up images and the way the bleach has further dissolved the image.


I have deliberately included specific references to the actual destination ‘North’, ‘Birmingham’, ‘M42’ but these are low-key details.

Adding relatively soft media, oil pastel, coloured pencil and a fine silver gel pen, means that these additional marks have sunk into the soft paper rather than sitting on top of it.


This has been an exercise in making something positive and creative out of dead time. Drawing has allowed me to convert a boring and frankly depressing experience into something productive and uplifting. This gets to the heart of ‘Investigating Drawing’ in a way no text book project could. I am investigating drawing, not as an artistic expression, a planning device, a visual examination, or many of the other ways I have thought about or used drawing, but as a way of living. Drawing has given meaning and purpose to mindless travelling, regardless of visual outcome.

The initial project outline suggested drawing in a busy place, trying to capture accurate but momentary details. My initial work, drawing birds, yachts etc was dull and conventional. It required me to step outside the obvious,  drawing my own movement, to produce something with a sense of speed and energy. Although the marks could be formulaic, I have attempted to be true to life and draw in response to the actual moment. Some of the drawings are much more successful than others. The charcoal drawings and the final combined photographic drawings best convey the momentum of the journey. I would like to be able to produce the charcoal drawings to a bigger scale, but I think that drawing whilst travelling, rather than using photographic references, is an important component of this work. The combined photograph could be printed across more sheets of washi and mounted more professionally.

Research Using the UCA Online Library – Initial Trial

Yesterday, OCA students were able, for the first time, to access the UCA online library. Eager to explore how it might help me, I did some initial searches. Logging in was very straight forward. The portal is very bare, just offering a search bar, and I entered ‘artist’s book’. This yielded many results, most relevant to my enquiry, but, on closer examination, they included abstracts, book reviews and other references, rather than actual articles. However, to the right of the search box is an ‘advanced search’ tab which allowed me to select ‘full text online’ and deselect ‘abstracts’, ‘book reviews’, select discipline ‘visual arts’ and thus get a much more focused result set.

Searching down the list of offerings, I came across ‘From Democratic Multiple to Artist Publishing: The (R)evolutionary Artist’s Book’ (White, 2012: 45-46). Clicking on the title took me to another portal (EBSCOhost) with the search already completed and showing me the abstract for the journal article. I was able to click on ‘PDF full text’ and read the article which discussed how initially artists’ books (multiples rather than one-off objects) had been produced as part of a relationship with a gallery, rather than a subverting step outside the gallery system. Subsequently they evolved away from that dependence as technological developments provided increased opportunities for self publishing in small runs at a reasonable price. This creative arc is still continuing, with access to internet publishing and online book producers such as blurb.

This was an interesting and relevant read. It has left me with a slight dilemma as to how to reference the article. The OCA referencing guidelines have changed as the college has abandoned its own guidelines and adopted the UCA format, which is subtlety different.  The EBSCOhost portal offers a downloadable reference but not in a format I can use. I used to use a Harvard referencing generator into which I could just paste a weblink or even scan a ISBN with my phone in a library, to create references as, being dyslexic, I get into a muddle with lists of letters and numbers. This has now been discontinued as a free resource and is too expensive for my level of use. In any case, is it of any use to give an online reference for a journal when that reference is via a portal which cannot necessarily be accessed by the reader? It seems to me to be more useful to reference the original journal, and that is what I have done here.

Continuing to explore, I entered the wide term ‘drawing’. This yielded an interesting list of articles which I shall have to explore over time. One which caught my eye is tangentially relevant to the current projects looking work evolving over time. This journal article, ‘Drawing Time’ (Lajer-Burcharth, 2015 pp.3-42) is presented via a different portal, this time MIT, and it is necessary to scan around the screen to discover how to view the text, in this case via a ‘download options’ tab on the right. The article looks at drawings by Watteau in which he has drawn the same model from different angles. Not only has he rotated the model but his own angle of view changes. The article describes how he used these studies and how he used a sticky, oily sanguine stick to draw so that he could transfer the drawings by offset-printing them, a useful idea for monoprinting. I had not realised how prolific his drawing was, nor how young he died.

I tried restricting this search to ‘ebooks’ hoping to find less specialist publications. I was pleased to see that the search returned ‘Drawing Now: Between the Lines of Contemporary Art’ (Downs et al. 2007), essential reading for Drawing 2. This was available via yet another portal which initially offered me a virtually blank page with just  the book details repeated on the right. However, below this was a tab ‘open content in new tab’ which rewarded me with a further page (yet another portal) where I could view the contents, read limited sections online or download the complete book for a limited time.

I am excited that the online library will be useful, not only for more detailed essay writing but also for wider ranging surveys.

As I have explored the new library access, I have also looked a new referencing software and have discovered EasyBib. This offers limited, but good enough, free referencing on ipad, iphone and online. It can scan bar codes and search online for books, so you don’t have to type in all the details. You can select the referencing preferred by individual institutions from a very long list which includes UCA. I shall give this one an extended trial.


Downes, S. Marshall, R. Sawden P. and Selby, A., (2007) London: I.B.Tauris

Lajer-Burcharth, E. (2015) ‘Drawing Time’ In October Magazine,  Massachusetts Institute of Technology Winter 2015 pp.3-42

White, T (2012) ‘From Democratic Multiple to Artist Publishing: The (R)evolutionary Artist’s Book’ In Art Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North AmericaUniversity of Chicago Press 31(1) pp.45-56